A massive star implodes in a supernova. The remnant is crushed down to nothing, leaving a hole in space and time, a singularity…

Or is there something left? Can the universe just destroy itself this way? Or is the fabric of the universe still there?

There is something still there, the remnant of space itself, crushed to the densest possible state.

What makes space something, rather than nothing?


Neutrinos are particles of pure space. They have no inertial mass, yet they can be boosted to tremendous energy. They may have any energy, like a photon. In fact they are similar to a photon, except in this way: Neutrinos have spin 1/2. This makes them take up space. They spin left handed. The ones that spin right handed are antineutrinos. They transfer spin, when a neutron decays to a proton and electron. They transfer momentum, but only from from one nuclear particle, in a straight line, to another. And they count out time. One rotation of a neutrino transfers time to another. Black Holes, supernova, gamma ray bursts, even General Relativity, can best be explained, by picturing the transfer of spin, momentum, and time, through a manifold of neutrinos.

You have seen the “rubber sheet”, the way spacetime is drawn. You know that since space is 3D, it is more like a sponge, with dense pockets where the stars and black holes go. Break down the sponge to the smallest possible constituents, and you are looking at the neutrinos.

You can’t break space down forever and ever. There are smallest pieces at the Planck scale. One smallest distance, one shortest time… these are the measure of the neutrino.

The center of the Black Hole is neutrinos, in a degenerate state, meaning they can not be forced closer together. Pauli Exclusion guarantees this. Pauli Exclusion is stone cold science, it is the principle that hold up White Dwarfs and neutron stars. These objects can implode when their particles approach the speed of light. A neutrino degenerate star can not fail, because the neutrinos are lightspeed particles. A Black Hole can not fail to a singularity. A Black Hole is a neutrino star.

Neutrino Star



Supernova and Gamma Ray Burst W49B